D.次の記述は、英国における学校教育 (日本の中学校に相当する段階) で目指すべき外国語としてのライティング力の目標である。Level 1が最も低く、Level 8 が最も高い区分けである。そのさらに上に、例外的技能発揮 (=exceptional performance) が設定されている。目標に続く資料も踏まえて設問 (task)に答えよ。

Attainment target 4: Writing
Level 1
Pupils copy single familiar words correctly. They label items and select appropriate words to complete short phrases or sentences.

Level 2
Pupils copy familiar short phrases correctly. They write or word process items [for example, simple signs and instructions] and set phrases used regularly in class. When they write familiar words from memory their spelling may be approximate.

Level 3
Pupils write two or three short sentences on familiar topics, using aids [for example, textbooks, wallcharts and their own written work]. They express personal responses, [for example, likes, dislikes and feelings]. They write short phrases from memory and their spelling is readily understandable.

Level 4
Pupils write individual paragraphs of about three or four simple sentences, drawing largely on memorised language. They are beginning to use their knowledge of grammar to adapt and substitute individual words and set phrases. They are beginning to use dictionaries or glossaries to check words they have learnt.

Level 5
Pupils produce short pieces of writing, in simple sentences, that seek and convey information and opinions. They refer to recent experiences or future plans, as well as to everyday activities. Although there may be some mistakes, the meaning can be understood with little or no difficulty. They use dictionaries or glossaries to check words they have learnt and to look up unknown words.

Level 6
Pupils write in paragraphs, using simple descriptive language, and refer to past, present and future actions and events. They apply grammar in new contexts. Although there may be a few mistakes, the meaning is usually clear.

Level 7
Pupils produce pieces of writing of varying lengths on real and imaginary subjects, using an appropriate register. They link sentences and paragraphs, structure ideas and adapt previously learnt language for their own purposes. They edit and redraft their work, using reference sources to improve their accuracy, precision and variety of expression. Although there may be occasional mistakes, the meaning is clear.

Level 8
Pupils express and justify ideas, opinions or personal points of view, and seek the views of others. They develop the content of what they have read, seen or heard. Their spelling and grammar are generally accurate, and the style is appropriate to the content. They use reference materials to extend their range of language and improve their accuracy.

Exceptional Performance
Pupils write coherently and accurately about a wide range of factual and imaginative topics. They choose the appropriate form of writing for a particular task, and use resources to help them vary the style and scope of their writing.

資料:英国においては、公立中学高校にあたる学校教育において、どの程度実際に上記の目標が達成されているのかを示す全国統計が以下の表である。2000年および2001年度のOfstedの統計資料によれば、中学生に相当するKey Stage 3(14歳終了時) において、上述のlevel1〜8までに達した生徒の割合(%)はそれぞれ、

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8
00年男子 3 11 24 30 21 7 1 0
00年女子 1 6 17 31 30 12 1 0
00年総合 2 9 21 30 26 9 1 0
01年男子 2 9 21 28 25 10 2 0
01年女子 1 5 14 26 32 17 3 0
01年総合 2 7 18 27 28 14 3 0

01年度の統計では00年度より若干の向上が見られたものの、level 5以上の達成率はわずか45%にとどまり
地歴 64%、美術芸術 73%、音楽 63%、体育 69% と比較しても格段に見劣りする。

Task: What is your attainment target in an area of foreign language writing? Based on the materials above, write your idea in about 150-200 words of English. Your writing is to be graded according to the 4Ds scheme.


本日のBGM: メッセージ (綿内克幸)